2021-7-6

猶大書 A Brief Notes On Jude (Please scroll down for English notes)

   进入分享之前,先报说一则新鲜看见的物事。话说前几天七月四号美国国庆礼拜天,往教会路上,路经一颇具规模的礼拜堂。礼拜堂路口的电子告示牌上,赫然一行大字,吸引眼球:“Salute America”(向美国致敬)。乍看热闹轰烈,其实不见得合宜。
教会是基督的肢体,有基督耶稣为头为元首,这是教会之所以为教会的根本。基督耶稣创造时代,掌管万有,他可以道成肉身救罪人,但绝不会放下万王之王的高贵身段,去致敬当年的罗马盛世(Pax Romana)和今天、明天的不管甚么强国大国。因此,教会应当为贬低基督至尊的身份而悔改。
教会之于国家、政权的关系,根据圣经的教导,是:
1) 主动地弘扬、高举真理风雨不改;
2) 被动地顺服地上君王、权柄而非效忠。我们被动地顺服地上君王、政权,直到这顺服,要将好基督徒推压到要变成坏基督徒的边缘,那时就是教会宣告:“顺从神,不顺从人,是应当的”(徒 5:29)的时刻。准备争战罢,打压是必然的,我们需要圣经!

   犹大书就是一卷吹响争战号角的书卷。这是新约最短的书卷之一,“区区”二十有五节,而且排列在倒数第二卷,因此好像不怎么引人注目。但是,圣灵既然把这书卷归入圣经中,本书的内容就是神的话语,和其它书卷一样有着相同的属灵价值和权威。事实上,新约各“短卷”,除犹大书外,犹有腓利门书及约翰贰、叁书,俱各文优纸贵,言简意赅,充满属灵的指引,于教训,督责,使人归正,教导人学义,都是有益的。(提后 3:16)

   圣经学者们基本同意,本书作者犹大,是主耶稣同母异父的兄弟,与雅各书作者份数昆仲。虽然如此,他们哥几位的信主心路,与我们当中许多人一样有点不大光彩。根据马可福音第六章,主耶稣的兄弟们是“雅各,约西,犹大,西门”;而约翰福音第七章,记载着他的兄弟们对主耶稣的行止大不以为然,“因为连他的弟兄说这话,是因为不信他。”(原文中,“兄弟”为众数,更妥当的翻译,是“兄弟们”)主的兄弟犹大本来也“不信他“,我们也经历了从不信到信的过程。

   复活的主令人生命改变,犹大不但信主耶稣为弥赛亚,而且更以信件教导正在经历诸般异端攻击中的教会奋起争战。犹大的生命提醒我们,认识主耶稣,我们也当成长为主的精兵。 今天是“律法放松,公理也不显明,恶人围困义人,所以公理显然颠倒”(哈 1:4)的年代,政治正确被自命主流们奉作圭臬,人的脑瓜妄图全面封杀神的真理,许多教会、基督徒及福音机构,也纷纷向世界长跪不起。曾记否?疫情肆虐时,敌基督的州政府下令关闭教会,却为脱衣舞等色情场所大开绿灯。于是有教会为了开门而从恶如流,居然卖身向政府登记为脱衣舞教会;(我学生很诧异他们会向会众灌输些甚似是而非)也风闻有教会机构,删除宗旨中“婚姻由一男一女结合而成”的圣经原则而撮合不能生育的同性恋伴侣认养儿童。在这时代,犹大书这一卷教导捍 卫真理的书卷,更值得我们再三学习、领会,因为,这是教会和基督徒争战的时代,温良恭俭让不是我们逃离战场的藉口。

   简单地说,本书可以按内容分成三部份:你们(1-3),他们(4-19),你们(20-25)。

第一部份:你们。

   作者说,他本来的意思,是打算写一封关于救恩的信。但他觉得,教导教会如何面对异端的攻击更加紧迫,他写这信的目的,是“要为从前一次交付圣徒的真道,竭力地争辩。”(3)这是本部分的中心内容。  真道,是神“一次交付“的,启示已经完成,我们手上的圣经,就是这完整的启示。但在这真道之外,不知有多少似是而非的说法排山倒海也似不断地涌向教会,因此作者犹大教导教会,要为真理竭力地争辩。怎个“竭力争辩”?原文evpagwni,zomai为本书卷独有,要求教会保持警觉,毫不松懈,随时抗击。保罗说:“那并不是福音,不过有些人搅扰你们,要把基督的福音更改了。”他更说:“若有人传福音给你们,与你们所领受的不同,他就应当被咒诅。”(参加 1)因为,他们是福音的仇敌。他们是谁?

第二部份:他们。他仔细揭示假师傅的真面目。

   第一:这些人是骗子,“是偷着进来的“,他们不会公然对教会和圣徒说:”俺假先知们来了,你们来听敌基督的胡扯……“。主耶稣说,他们是披着羊皮的狼(太 7:15)。

   第二:这些人是不虔诚的。在信中,犹大反复使用“不虔诚的 (ungodly)“来形容这些人(15,18)。他们口中声称神,但他们的行为与真理背道而驰。

   第三:这些人“将我们神的恩变作放纵情欲的机会“,流行的一个说法是:神是爱,他会容许人任何自由,这就是对放纵的鼓吹。他们在教会中鼓吹宽容同性恋、堕胎、滥交,变性等等。

   第四:这些人口口声声“基督徒“,但他们的生命,与信耶稣没有半毛钱关系。我们看见,披着“基督徒“外衣但过着与世界一般无二的人生,这是基督信仰最大的敌人。 圣徒怎样才能在这样的攻击中坚立、为主作美好见证?

第三部分:再回到“你们”。

   20-21 节给予我们明确的指引。乍看去,经文似乎要求我们做四件事。但其实这里头只有一个目标:“保守自己常在神的爱中”。“保守”是现在进行时命令式,指“持之有恒地努力”。这是圣灵的命令,也是提醒,我们需要付出全部的努力。怎样达到这个目的?原文中,“保守自己常在神的爱中”是主句,犹大用以下三个从句,教导我们在恶浪的冲击中当怎样行,以保守自己常在神的爱中。

   第一:“要在至圣的真道上造就自己”,即以“从前一次交付圣徒的真道“,圣经,作为生命之源,造就之本。这就要求我们熟读神的话语,听道并且行道。我们需要渴慕真理,“昼夜思想”(诗 1:2),并无他途。

   第二:“在圣灵里祷告“。为甚么,祷告不就行了?其实,就如保罗说,” 我们本不晓得当怎样祷告,只是圣灵亲自用说不出来的叹息,替我们祷告。“如此,我们就必须向神谦卑,全心依靠他,而不是以我为中心的祷告。

   第三:“仰望我们主耶稣基督的怜悯,直到永生。“我们需要主的怜悯,因为我们软弱、愚 昧、亏欠、甚至失足。这样,在仇敌环伺的境况中,靠着主的怜悯,我们指着主夸口,就可以靠主站立得稳,直到永生。

   和合本与NIV都略去了22节起首原文的连接词kai,(并且)。鼓励读者们与神同行,作者还指导我们,保守自己常在神的爱中,“并且”要一直怜悯、搭救一些在争战中“存疑心”的人。主耶稣不也是以他的爱,一直怜悯、搭救小信的众门徒,以及他“存疑心”的弟弟们的么?有些是要把他们“从火中抢出来”,这里活脱是一幕灭城天使、所多玛、与亚伯拉罕的侄儿罗得的动画片,天使把罗得“抢出来”,犹大命令我们效法天使(怜悯evlea/te、搭救sw,|zete,都是进行时命令式,指教会、圣徒不懈的努力),把那些即要进天国又贪恋世俗的脚踩两条船弟兄姊妹们“抢”出来,以逃避审判的烈焰,免至可怖的第二次死,“连那被情欲沾染的衣服也当厌恶”在原文文法上是形容词从句,“厌恶”是进行时,叙述罗得并那些贪恋世俗的弟兄姊妹们所穿着的,是被情欲沾染的衣服,他们的思维言行一举一动,全被情欲(原文sa,rx为“肉体”)的污染,在圣徒眼中,应作敝履之弃。使徒彼得说:“我劝你们要禁戒肉体的私欲。这私欲是与灵魂争战的。” 综合20-23节,教会诸位,作者嘱托我们:保守自己,并且以神的爱,“总要救些人”。(林 前9:22)任重道远着呢。

   24-25节是作者的祝福:“那能保守你们不失脚,叫你们无瑕无疵,欢欢喜喜站在他荣耀之前的,我们的救主独一的神。愿荣耀,威严,能力,权柄,因我们的主耶稣基督,归与他,从万古以前,并现今,直到永永远远。阿们。”   — David Yip

A Brief Notes On Jude

   Jude among the NT is a book of call for the battle. This book is with only 25 verses, one of the shortest books in the NT, and is listed towards the end of the collection. Therefore, it seems to be not as noticeable comparing to the other books in the Bible. However, since Jude is one of the books in the Scripture, it is doomed to be the work of the Holy Spirit and therefore as authoritative and valuable as all other books in the Bible. In fact, all short books in the NT, such as Philemon and II and III John, though not wordy, but the teachings in them are unique and Christians should not overlook.

   As for the authorship of Jude, most Bible scholars agree that this book is written by Jude the brother of Jesus. He is the offspring of Joseph and Mary, in Mark chapter 6 these siblings are marked as “James, Joseph, Judas and Simon”. Like many of us, they at one point did not believe that Jesus was the Messiah (John 7). But the power of resurrection changed people’s life as well as Jude’s. Not only that Jude believed in the Lord, he also wrote this letter to encourage the church to fight against the invasion of the heresies. In this crooked generation, the Church is attacked from all directions in various forms.  We need the light from the book of Jude to fight back.

   Simply put, this book can be divided into three different sections: you (1-3), they (4-19), and you (20-25).

   First Jude addresses the “you”, the saints. In his mind there is a urgent call for him to write this letter, and the purpose is to “exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints.” (3) Once for all, God’s revelation is complete and is written down as the Holy Scripture. Besides the Scripture, however, we have heard and seen many specious theories and notions as sea billows, trying hard to divert the Church from the heavenly narrow way. For this reason, Jude teaches the Church to contend earnestly. The original Greek word  (contend earnestly) only appears here in this book. To contend, because as the apostle Paul points out, “if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed.” (Gal 1:9)

   Who are these guys? The second section reveals that they are the enemies of the gospel. First, these guys “have crept in unnoticed” (4). False teachers will never declare their concealed identity, saying: we are coming to teach some other gospels than that of Paul’s. They are as what Lord Jesus said, they “come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves.”(Matt 7:15)

   Moreover, these are ungodly men. Jude repeatedly employs “ungodly” to describe these people. Being ungodly indicates that they can say, “Lord, Lord…”, but they behave against holiness.

   Third, theses guys “turn the grace of our God into lewdness and deny the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ.” A popular saying is, God is love, with His loving nature he tolerates, men can have freedom to do anything including homosexuality, abortion, bad company, and etc.

   To conclude, the lives of these people has nothing to do with the holiness of God. The worst adversary of God is to self-proclaim to be Christians but to continuously live a worldly lifestyle. How, then, can the children of God stand firm?

   In the third section, Jude returns to the “you” again. In 20-21 we seem to gain an impression that the author requests us to do four things. In fact, the only purpose is: “keep yourselves in the love of God.” (21). In original Greek, “keep” is an imperative verb in continuous tense, this indicates that we have to contribute with all our effort. Jude uses the other three sentences as adverbial clauses to guide us to reach the goal: 1) building yourselves up on your most holy faith; 2) praying in the Holy Spirit; and 3) looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.     — David Yip

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s